Agile Factory

Lean Manufacturing - APICS discussion

Value added vs Non-value added

From: Mark Warren
Sent: Wednesday, September 22, 2004
Subject: [leansig] RE: Value added vs Non-value added

Apologies for the delayed response. The best and simplest way to divide VA/NVA is based upon the Gilbert’s development of Therbligs. You will find background information in most any IE textbook. I have used this chart as a guide on designating VA/NVA to tasks. These descriptions also work in the office and service environment.

Value Added (VA)

Non-Value Added (NVA)

Assemble – only if this detail is NOT disassembled in a later step before delivery to the customer. Assemble – if this detail is a temporary step, which is later disassembled for further processing.
Disassemble – only if this operation is extracting products from a naturally occurring item. Example: Butcher ‘disassembles’ the animal carcass into products desired by customers. Disassemble –ask why the materials were assembled in the first place.
Grasp or Release – also includes positioning, pre-positioning, re-positioning and holding.


Transport: Loaded or Unloaded – also includes walk, carry, move, travel, and lift.


Search or Find includes looking for instructions, information, parts, tools, etc.


Data Related this includes counting, recounting, weighing, measuring, recording or logging information.


Decision includes select, inspect, sort, plan, schedule, requisition and order.


Miscellaneous Handling includes wrapping or unwrapping, packing or unpacking, storing or removing from storage, filing or removing from file, stacking or unstacking, preserving and cleaning.


Delays are classified as avoidable, unavoidable or resting. This is usually found in descriptions of waiting on machine, material or people.


Use – a positive activity to modify a product during this operation. (*NVA if this does not modify product for future customer use.)

Non-Value Added —Required (NVA-R)

Identification – can consist of anything from labels on packing materials, to marking at the component level. While this insures smooth flow of the product, and provides positive identification, it does not add functional value to the customer.
Legal requirements –data collections required for safety-related features, but can include process audits, check sheets, recording lot information for traceability, etc.

Copyright 2003 -  Tesla2, Inc.

 MARK WARREN, Tesla2, Inc.,
"Discovering Solutions with People"