From: Norman Bodek
Sent: March 20, 2005
First, I want to thank many of you for your encouraging emails on this series. Editing
Hiranos work is a real challenge for me but, even after writing and publishing books
since 1980 on the Toyota Production System, I am still amazed on how much more there is to
In this new book Hirano has a part on the Eight conditions for flow
production·"one-piece flow". As I did with the 10 Commandments I would like to
share with you my understanding of these Eight Conditions and post them to you within the
next few weeks. The conditions are directly from Hirano, the comments are mine. Please do
let me know if you find this exercise of mine of value to you.
The first four conditions were:
Condition 1: To lay out facilities in
the sequence of processes
Condition 2: To make facilities small
and exclusive use
Condition 3: U-shape line·parallel
Condition 4: Working by standing
Multi-process operation·multi-skill operator
Traditional machine centers were normally set-up by machine type,
lathes, punch presses, etc. One person often ran one machine, waiting, watching or doing
simple repetitive tasks. For flow production we now align various different machines into
a U-shaped cell to one piece flow, with the worker moving one part from
machine to machine. The worker places a part into one machine or to a device that will
hold the part securely while the machine operates on the part. The worker can then remove
the finished part from the previous cycle and then move it to the next machine. Instead of
the worker just running one type of machine the worker is now required to be multi-skilled
to run all of the machines within the cell. In addition, the worker is expected, when
necessary, to be able to do minor repairs to all of the machines. The workers job is
Funny, but prior to my first trip to Japan in November 1980 I went to the General
Motors plant in Tarrytown, New York where they were assembling Oldsmobiles. We did
this so that we would be able to have some ability to compare an American plant with a
When we entered the Tarrytown plant at first all you could see was mountains of inventory.
Here they were assembling around 600 automobiles a shift on two shifts a day. On the
factory floor they had 600 engines, 600 roofs, 600 tail pipes, 600 mufflers, 600 frames,
2400 to 4800 doors, 3000 tires, etc. Parts, boxes were piled almost to the top of the
In the plant were also railroad tracks with a train sitting there waiting to be unloaded
with another 600 car parts for the next shift. Also outside of the plant was another
series of trains filled with car parts waiting to move into the plant the next day. We
were told that waiting outside the plant were about a weeks worth of parts. I
believe at the time that GM was turning over inventory four times a year while at Toyota
it was over 200 times.
Our guide took us along the assembly line. I noticed particularly one worker working on
the line putting fluid into the brake lining of every other car. This was hard to believe.
He moved so slowly. To me it was deadly. I asked the guide if this man rotated jobs. He
said, No. In fact we had one man, all he did for 43 years was put tires onto a hook;
then the tires moved over to the line. Ironically, when he retired he only collected two
retirement checks. Sure all the fun and excitement in life was over for him.
Well, when we visited Toyota on that first trip and were also able to see the assembly
line I particularly wanted to see the person putting in brake fluid into the cars. I did.
But, he put brake fluid into every car not just every other one and he also put the
windshield wipers on each car and also tightened a few screws on the dashboard. This
worker, if he/she wanted, could rotate weekly by posting their job on a bulletin
Today at Toyota in Georgetown, Kentucky , workers on the finished assembly line are
multi-skilled and can rotate every two hours to different tasks. It makes the work more
challenging and more interesting at the same time.
Multi-process operation is also called "longitudinal work", which means to look
after as many different processes in the sequence of processing order. Operators trained
in such a way are called multi-skill operators.
Please do read my books The Idea Generator - Quick and Easy Kaizen, Kaikaku The Power and
Magic of Lean and the latest one written with Chuck Yorke All You Gotta Do Is Ask.
PS: I will be a featured speaker at the APICS annual conference in New Orleans. Please do
come and let's have a chance to meet and discuss.
 Here is the work of the future. How to create a working environment for both advanced
manufacturing and for the quality of work life for the workers.
 I do have a personal gripe with the unions in America who shouted their favorite
slogan, work smarter not harder. First of all, the average union worker was
looked at as an extension of the machine and hardly ever was allowed to use their brains
on the job and somehow the unions didnt fight management against that abuse. They
thought that moving slowly was better for the worker than really moving at work. Unions
were against what they called speed up. However, to me I feel so much better
when my energy moves. I love sport activities and I love to move around a lot at work. And
I just read recently that 40% of Americans are overweight, and probably a lot of that has
to do with the way work is designed.
 Quoted from my book Kaikaku The Power and Magic of Lean.